Models - Climate System Model

BCC_CSM1.0 is the first-generation of climate system model developed at the Beijing Climate Center (BCC), China Meteorological Administration, based on NCAR CCSM2.0 (Kiehl and Gent, 2004). It composes of four separate model components linked by central coupler CPL5 (Kauffman, 2006): the atmospheric component BCC_AGCM2.0.1 (Wu et al., 2010), land-surface component CLM3 (Dickinson et al., 2006), the oceanic component POP (Smith and Gent, 2002) and sea-ice component CSIM4 (Briegleb et al., 2004). The ocean and sea-ice models are the same as in NCAR CCSM2.0.

Recent studies demonstrate the reasonable performances of BCC_CSM1.0 in historical climate reproduction as well as future climate prediction. Some results are shown here.

(1) In the 20th century climate study, BCC_CSM1.0 can well capture the climatological state of global precipitation pattern. Good performances are also evident in simulating precipitation variability at seasonal, intra-seasonal and annual timescales. The simulation also shows an increase trends in the amount of global land precipitation and frequency of extreme precipitation events (Dong et al., 2012).

(2) By using 1958-2005 daily air temperature and precipitation data from 437 stations over China, the spatial and temporal variations of the extreme temperature and precipitation events is evaluated. BCC model can capture the predominant spatial patterns of the averaged extreme temperature and precipitation events, but produce systematic bias compared to the observations. On the whole, the model performs better in warm days simulation than in cold nights simulation. Details can be found in Chen et al. (2011).

(3) Two sensitive experiments are conducted by BCC_CSM1.0 under two mitigation scenarios, in which CO2 emissions linearly reduced to half of the value in 1990 and 2007, respectively, from 2012 to 2050. In comparison the B1 emission scenario, global mean surface air temperature is lower since 2040s, which is 20 years after the CO2 mitigation becomes lower than that in the B1 emission scenario (Xin et al., 2009)

(4) Extreme study on the regional extreme precipitation change over eastern China east of 105°E shows that: (1) BCC_CSM1.0 can reproduce the basic feature of observed climatology of annual total precipitation and extreme precipitation over the 95th percentile, with spatial correlation of 0.77 for both of them. (2) BCC_CSM1.0 is also able to capture the main change patterns of yearly accumulated extreme precipitation above the 95th percentile, although there are some model biases in the spatial extension and strength. Some model biases are also noted. Details can be found in Zhang et al. (2011).

(5) The projection capability of the BCC_CSM1.0 model is comparable to that of other climate system models. The changes in globally-averaged and China-averaged air temperature and precipitation simulated by the BCC_CSM1.0 model are within the range of CMIP3 model results. Details can be found in Zhang (2012)

 Main Reference

Chen H, Shi S, and Zhou J (2011) Evaluation of recent 50 years extreme climate events over China simulated by Beijing Climate Center (BCC) climate model (in chinese). Transactions of Atmospheric Sciences, 34(5):513-528. (Full text)
Dong M, Wu T, Wang Z, Xin X, Zhang F (2012) A simulation study on the precipitation and its variation during the 20th century by using the BCC climate model (BCC_CSM1) (in chinese). Journal of Applied Meteorological Science. (Abstract)
Xin X, Wu T, Wang Z (2009) Numerical simulation of climate change in the 21th century under two different mitigation scenarios (in chinese). Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 67(6): 935-946. (Full text)
Wu T, Yu R, Zhang F, Wang Z, Dong M, Wang L, Jin X, Chen D, Li L (2010) The Beijing Climate Center atmospheric general circulation model: description and its performance for the present-day climate. Clim Dyn 34:123–147. doi:10.1007/s00382-008-0487-2. (Full text)
Zhang L, Dong M, Wu T (2011) Changes in precipitation extremes over Eastern China simulated by the Beijing Climate Center Climate System Model (BCC_CSM1.0). Climate Research, 50, 227-245. (Full text)
Zhang L, Wu T, Xin X, Dong M, and Wang Z (2012) Projections of 21 centrury global and China regional annual mean temperature and precipitation variability by the BCC_CSM1.0 model (in chinese). Acta Meteorologica Sinica. (Abstract)

 Extra references for BCC_CSM1.0

Briegleb, B. P., E. C. Hunke, C. M. Bitz, W. H. Lipscomb, M. M. Holland, J. L. Schramm, and R. E. Moritz, 2004: The sea ice simulation of the Community Climate System Model, version two. NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-45+STR, 34 pp.
Dickinson, R. E., K. W. Oleson, G. Bonan, F. Hoffman, P. Thornton, M. Vertenstein, Z. L. Yang, and X. Zeng (2006), The Community Land Model and its climate statistics as a component of the Community Climate System Model, Journal of climate, 19(11), 2302-2324.
Kiehl, J. T., Gent, P. R. (2004) The community climate system model, version 2, Journal of climate, 17(19), 3666-3682.
Kauffman, B., Large, W. (2002) The CCSM coupler version combined user’s guide, source code reference and scientific description. National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA, 1-46.
Smith, R. D., and P. R. Gent, Eds.,. cited 2002: Reference manual for the Parallel Ocean Program (POP); ocean component of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM-2). [Available online at;.].